Protecting and Restoring Rare Biodiversity Sustainability in Mara River Transboundary Basin in Tanzania

Project description (max. 300 words): It aim to promote sustainable conservation and practices for
uninformed and unreachable 400 artisan miners became aware in conservation needs and have
regulated system to protect and restore critically endangered Pancake tortoises those highly affected
by active and irregularities gold mines; proposed responsible mining plans, conservation education
and enhance outreach to both miners and adjacent villagers shall save pancake tortoise out of
extinction in few years to come if existing mines would not be regulated at this global found pancake
habitats. Pancake tortoises are founds only in Kenya and Tanzania; preferably in a shared Mara river
basin trans boundary where mining could leads them to extinction! Artisan gold miners crushes rocky
crevices (traditional habitats for tortoises) in search for gold ore where tends to kills and injuries
leads to ecological threats; deeply miners fragile habitats, destabilize hatching rates and erode
massive entire ecology, erosive untreated Geo- chemicals wastes in 90% makes hazardous
contaminated water in its way to Lake Victoria after local gold recovery in irresponsible process ;also
tends to affect human health where miners touch chemicals without gears and drink contaminated
water, diminish local economy (adjacent farms) ,biodiversity and dense air pollution effects while
ends to decline pancake population and fertility rate as they depends staying in predictable gold
rocks, the mining affects water ,vegetations and increase air pollution due to rampant use of mercury
;Geo-chemical wastes greatly endangering endemic biodiversity sustainability belongs in the basin.

The Kukang Rescue Program

Illegal wildlife trade poses a serious threat to species’ survival worldwide. Although it is widespread in Indonesia, its reduction is being obstructed by weak law enforcement. Among the most commonly trafficked mammal species in Indonesia is the greater slow loris (Nycticebus coucang). Despite being protected both nationally and internationally, it is being sold mainly as a “pet”. Indonesian foundation called “Yayasan Peduli Kelestarian Satwa Liar (Wildlife Preservation Foundation)” leads “The Kukang Rescue Program” which was established near Medan, the Sumatra’s capital city and a frequent transit point for wildlife trafficking, as a response to the alarming situation of the illegal trade in slow lorises. The main aim of The Kukang Rescue Program is to reduce illegal wildlife trade, particularly in this protected prosimian species. To enable it, the program cooperates with local government agencies on wildlife protection and operates a rescue and rehabilitation center for confiscated animals. The absence of such a facility usually represents a great obstacle for competent authorities in confiscating illegally kept animals. Furthermore, the program focuses on education, awareness-raising, community engagement activities, and capacity building. The Kukang Rescue Program is supported by several EAZA zoos and is managed by a group of Czechs in Indonesia together with Indonesians. The program has also gained the support of the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA) as well as the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA).

Snow leopard-Human Conflict Resolution Program in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal

The snow leopard has been recently categorized as vulnerable, it is top of the food chain in the Himalayas and is a species of global conservation concen. Recently, common leopard have also been recorded from the range of snow leopard and the range of the Himalayan grey wolf also overlaps that of snow leopard. All these species attack livestock. The habitats where these species occur is also the grazing land of the livestock of the local people. Livestock husbandary is the primary livelihood for these people who live in some of the world’s most remote villages. A serious conflict situation arises when livestock is attacked by one of these predators. The livestock owners tend to focus on the snow leopards as the cause of their loss and herders may resort to the retaliatory killing of snow leopards by poisoning the carcasses of snow leopard prey or setting foot traps. These actions have caused a decline in the numbers of snow leopard. This conflict situation could be resolved if local people were made aware of the importance of using improved corrals and using then when predators are most likely to be active. For example; if Yak calves were corraled before sunrise, predation would be reduced. The situation could be further improved if the herders were made aware of habitat selection by predators. Therefore, we have designed the program to initiate a herders network, to support them with portable corrals to enclose calves and to improve permanent corrals (predator proof) for adult livestock, to distribute predator repellent lights and to initiate an awareness program for the herders (provision of maps indicating zones vulnerable to higher levels of predation and information about predator activity cycle etc. ). These programs will be piloted in Gnwal and Ghyaru villages within Annapurna Conservation Area and then extended to other remote villages in Manang and Mustang .

Large Mammals of the Cayambe Coca National Park, Ecuador

The Large Mammals Project in the Cayambe Coca National Park, is studying the largest mammals of the Andes of South America, Andean Bear, Mountain Tapir and Puma. Since 2010 we have deployed Iridium / GPS collars to 5 Andean bears and 10 mountain tapirs. Some scientific articles on the ecology and biology of these species have already been published. Three years ago we received the request for help from the Oyacachi indigenous community, which since 2000 is suffering the loss of its cattle due to the predation by bears and pumas.
To reduce the conflict, we have created a small compensation program through a mutual agreement signed with the Oyacachi community, they are committed to respect and protect the life of the problem carnivores, especially bears, in exchange for our project returning calves to change of predated cows, training of the community´s young people on environmental issues, review and veterinary medication of their livestock, these points we have more or less covered with donations coming from Ecuadorian people.
Our project now seeks through the research is to capture one or two predatory bears to deploy on them satellite collars and study their movements, so we can create a predict model about bear predation, never before conceived in the region, which will be delivered to the community and to the environmental authorities, so we think we will reduce the human-bear conflict and achieve a peaceful coexistence.

Brown bear conservation and research program in a model area in Romania

In 2006, Milvus Group has started the “Brown bear conservation and research program in a model area in Romania”. This small-scale, long-term, in-situ initiative responds to the three main threats to brown bears. We work towards: 1) Improving the social acceptance of the species; 2) Improving scientific knowledge about the species – conservation oriented research; and 3) Securing a suitable habitat for the bears. Under Objective 1, we strive to improve the social acceptance of brown bears in the project areas (and not only), mainly through a systematic mass-media campaign. Under Objective 2, we gather telemetry data from bears we fit with GPS-GSM collars, conduct a study on bear parasites, cooperate on a study on bear poaching in Romania, respectively work on publishing some of our results through peer-reviewed papers. Under Objective 3, we gather scientific data to pave the way for mitigation measures (crossing structures) for large carnivores on one of Romania’s planned highways in the Eastern Carpathians, in order to increase the future highway’s permeability for these species (and not only). Additionally, each year we save a number of orphaned bear cubs and also rescue bears from snares set by poachers.
Some of our achievements so far include: 6 new protected areas (Natura 2000 sites) designated for brown bears (and other species & habitats of EU importance); 18 orphaned bear cubs saved; 11 bears saved from poachers’ snares; 115 bear dens and 8 open nests located and measured; 211 scats and 43 harvested bears examined for endoparasites; genetic samples collected from more, than 150 individuals; 3 habituated bears successfully relocated; 25 bears fitted with GPS-GSM collars; complex questionnaire survey among 865 rural residents, in 4 study areas, on the public perceptions of large carnivores; and more.

Bearded vulture reintroduction program

The bearded vulture is the only member of the genus Gypaetus and its world population trend is decreasing. It’s registered as “Vulnerable” (SPEC 3) on the IUCN European red list and as “endangered” on the IUCN France red list. Also registered on annex I of the European Parliament Birds Directive and on annex II to the Convention of Berne, Boon and Washington. The main causes of on-going declines appear to be poisoning, direct persecution, habitat degradation, disturbance of breeding birds, inadequate food availability, changes in livestock-rearing practices and collisions with powerlines and wind turbines .
This emblematic vulture, is the last link of the food chain being the only carrion feeder cleaner eating bones exclusively.
The french bearded vulture’s population includes the alpine population, the pyrenean population and an isolated tiny corsican population, with the total national number of breeding pairs remaining low. The bearded vulture reintroduction project in the Massif Central has been established since 2012, in order to connect the two existing continental populations and create a meta-population viable on the long term, by means of improving genetic flows. These conservation efforts are part of a european strategy, and this project currently benefits of european commission support and is known as LIFE GYPCONNECT. The various actions regarding this project and carried out by LPO Grands Causses (technical structure of LPO France) are: Juvenile release coming from european endangered species breeding program and by using the “hacking” release method , monitoring of individuals movement by GPS analyses and sightings, ensuring sufficient quantities of local and externally sourced food available (rendering plots on individual livestock farms to benefit vultures, special bearded vulture feeding sites, vigilance and threat management (hunting, poisoning, powerlines and wind turbines…), public awareness through various audiences.

Black (Cinereous) vulture conservation program

This species is registred as “Endangered” on the IUCN French Red List, on the Appendix II of CITES and Annex I of EU Birds Directive. The two main threats to the species are direct mortality caused by humans (either accidentally or deliberately) and decreasing availability of food. The main cause of unnatural death is the use of poisoned baits for carnivorous pest extermination.
This vulture belongs to the scavengers group, it feeds on carcasses, usually the hardest parts.
The Cinereous vulture conservation project in the Massif Central started by a reintroduction program between 1992 and 2004. The current population of Cinereous vulture in the Grands Causses seems to have reached a premature plateau, the team recorded 27 breeding pairs for 2017. The various actions regarding this project and carried out by LPO Grands Causses (technical structure of LPO France) are: home range monitoring (GPS analysis and visual observations), breeding monitoring (checking established breeding pairs and detecting new pairs , the laying date and the juvenile fledging date), demographic monitoring (reading rings and maintaining the species data base), diet study by collecting elements near the nests, ensuring sufficient quantities of local and externally sourced food are available (livestock farms using rendering plots, fallen livestock collection to aliment a vulture feedind station run by LPO Grands Causses team), habitat protection (influence political decisions in terms of protection: creation of SPA-special protection area and other protection status), vigilance and threat management (hunting, poisoning, powerlines and wind turbines…), public awareness through various audiences.

Improving public perception of vultures

This project aimes to improve the public perception of vultures and to reintegrate the interdependant role they play within our society. In order to do this LPO Grands Causses is developing various communication platforms. A range of communication tools are regularly updated: posters, pamphlets, information panels on sign-posted paths, documentaries, dispalys etc. All of these are these are diffused at events organised by LPO Grands Causses and partner organisations throughout the entire area concerned (Aveyron, Lozere, Ardeche, Gard, Herault): conferences, seminars, open days, school field trips, stands at events organised by local authorities. This is to engage with a broad audience of stakeholders with regards to vultures, awareness raising is directed at very different levels: schools, local authorities, livestock farmers, hunters, politicians, general public, tourists…
The population of griffon vultures is currently expanding and their foraging area has enlarged as a result. This has brought them into areas where people aren’t used to seeing vultures so it is important for LPO Grands Causses to raise awareness in these places. We now hope to develop our communication and awareness raising activities over a much wider area and improve the public perception of vultures.

Tackling poisoning threats in raptor populations.

Poisoning of vultures is becoming increasingly frequent and represents a worldwide threat to all vulture populations. This man-made threat can be inflicted directly or indirectly upon vultures. Certain anti-inflammatory drugs used on domestic animals and remain present in their carcasses and can be toxic or life-threatening for vultures feeding upon them. Vultures can also be intoxicated by other substances artificially found within their bodies. Illegal shooting of large raptors remains an issue, even when not fatal, the shots can inflict sequelas or the side effects of the subsequent lead poisoning can remain latent. LPO Grands Causses aims to sytematically recover any dead vultures or other large raptor species for autopsy and veterinary analysis to determine the presence of leador other toxins. The second aspect of this project involves developing a routine for daily monitoring and awareness raising with various stakeholders: livestock farmers, farming bodies, local autorities, an hunters. Trials of lead-free ammunition are underway having been developed and executed in partnership with the Cevennes National Park, LPO Grands CAusses and the Hunters Federation of Lozere within the framework of a project supported by the European Commission .

Gryphon Vulture Conservation Program

The species is registred as “Least Concern” on the IUCN European red list, on the Appendix II of CITES and Annex I of EU Birds Directive. The population and its habitat are still under a strict conservation action plan. The two main threats to the species are direct mortality caused by humans (either accidentally or deliberately) and decreasing availability of food. The main cause of unnatural death is the use of poisoned baits for predator extermination.
This vulture, belongs to the scavengers group feeding on carcasses, usually the first to arrive and to feed with soft part of the carrion.
This project of Griffon vulture conservation in the Massif Central started by a first reintroduction program between 1981 and 1986 releasing 61 Griffon vultures. It’s been a real success and the current population in the Grands Causses is counted about 550 breeding pairs, precisely 441 fledges for 2017. The various actions regarding this project and carried out by LPO Grands Causses (technical structure of LPO France) are: Home range Monitoring (visual observations), breeding monitoring (follow-up of the breeding pairs establishment, the laying date and the juvenile fledging date), demographic monitoring (reading rings and data base uses), ensuring the sufficient quantities available of local and externally sourced food (plot rendering of cattle raiser, rendering hinge run by LPO Grands Causses team), habitat protection (be actor of political decisions in term of protection: creation of SPA-special protection area and other protection status), vigilance and threat management (hunting, poisoning, powerlines and wind turbines…), public awareness through various audiences.